This noble blog is dynamic and versatile, created purposely to enhance the development of Islamic political thought and activism in the minds of the students and the general public.

BY OSAMA BN LADEN| Translated by Jihad Unspun
October 7, 2002


Indeed, I’m a trustworthy adviser to you. I invite you to the happiness of this world and the hereafter and to escape your dry, miserable, materialistic life that is without soul. I invite you to Islam, that calls to follow of the path of Allah alone Who has no partners, the path which calls for justice and forbids oppression and crimes.

Furthermore, I call you to understand the message of the two battles of New York and Washington that came in response to some of your former crimes and know that the one who has started it is the real oppressor. It is clear to everyone who observes the movements of the criminal gang in the White House, these agents of the Jews which are preparing for an attack against Islamic world in order to divide it, without any real opposition by the American people, that you have not learned anything from the two battles.

So I tell you and Allah is Surety over what I say, if America increases or does not reduce the intensity of their aggression, we will respond in an equal manner by the permission of Allah, the Most Magnificent. I swear by Allah that the youth of Islam are preparing for what will fill your hearts with fear and horror and will target your economic lifeline until you restrain from your aggression and enmity or the fastest towards aggression dies.
I ask Allah, the Most Great, to provide us with support from Him – He is Our Protector and the only One capable of that.


Development of Muslim Sects and Philosophy

This noble blog is dynamic and versatile, created purposely to enhance the development of Islamic political thought and activism in the minds of the students and the general public


Development of Muslim Sects and Philosophy During the lifetime of the prophet (S.A.W) there is nothing like conflicts, contradictions, or disputes existed among the Muslim ummah. This is because that any arising question or problem was referred to the prophet (S.A.W) for its answer or solution. In not more than one verse Allah has enjoined the companions and Muslims in general to refer all their questions and problems to prophet (S.A.W) and to make him their unquestioned leader and chief judge in all aspect of life. This of course, made any conflicts and disputes impossible among the Muslim ummah in the prophet era. The beginning of Muslim sects and contradictions could be traced back to eventual sickness of the prophet (S.A.W). While in his sickbed, the prophet (S.A.W) ordered for a pen perhaps to write some important instructions for the companions. Suddenly, the companions engaged in conflicts; while some were ready to obey the prophet’s order other said no, the prophet would need to rest so that no one should disturbed him. This is the beginning of Muslim conflicts in their history. Moreover, another conflict came up after the death of the prophet (S.A.W) over who would succeed him. While some were supporting Sayyid Abubakar other were supporting Sayyid Aliyu. The supporters of Abubakar reasoned that he was the first friend of the prophet (S.A.W), the first to accept Islam and being the representative of the prophet (S.A.W) in his absence. They asserted that these qualities would make him the Caliph. On the other side, Aliyu’s supporters argued that the Khilafah must in person of Aliyu because he is the cousin and the son-in-law of the prophet (S.A.W). But the problem was resolved with the major consensus of choosing Abubakar as the first Caliph. It was clear that there was another quarrel over where the prophet would be buried. However, the conflict was resolved and was buried at Madinah in reference to ´´ the prophets are buried where they died``.

The ultimate division of Muslim ummah became clear after the assassination of Uthman bn Affan, the third caliph of the prophet (S.A.W). With the assassination of Uthman, Aliyu became the fourth. He confronted with resistance from some factions and made him to move his capital from Madinah to Kufah (Iraq). Aliyu was first opposed by an alliance led by the prophet wife, A’isha and latter by Ibn Az-zubair, both were demanding Aliyu to fish out the murderers of Uthman. The parties were almost clashed at the battle of camel but the conflict was amicably resolved and Aliyu escourted A’isha to her home. Another opposition came up to Aliyu from Mu’awiyya and the two parties combated at the battle of Siffin (656 C.E). But the battle was stopped before either of the parties achieved victory. The parties agreed to arbitration issued by Mu’awiyya. At this time, the supporters of Aliyu became divided; while some agreed to arbitrate along side with their leader Aliyu others refused arguing that ´´ there is no arbitration but to Allah``. This group constituted the Muslim sect known as Khawarij. From this moment onwards, the problem of division among the Muslim ummah began to become prevalent. Aliyu was assassinated by a kharijite partisan (661 C.E) and Mu’awiyya proclaimed himself as caliph. In this time, the hidden shi’ah group conceptualized Al-hussain son of Aliyu as the legitimate caliph after his father. When Mu’awiyya was succeded by his son, yazid, shi’ah re-emerged and apparently exposed themselves as die-hard supporters of Ahl-bayt (Aliyu’s family). TheY opposed the reign of Mu’awiyya and that of his son, Yazid, in addition to the previous caliphs; they frankly support Al-hussain as the legitimate caliph of Muslim ummah.

Mu’utazilites followed after shi’ah when a question arose about the grave sin. Wasil ibn attah held different opinion with his master (Hassanul basari) about this concept. Having criticized his master wasil was expelled from the school and thus founded the Mu’utazilites school of thought. Ash’ariyya is another Musli sect founded by Abul-hassanul-ash’ari in an attempt to defend the authentic view of Islamic theology against the heresies of khawarij and mu’utazilite. Let us now examine each sect while outlining their principles.


Khawarij were the offshoot of Aliyu’s followers who withdrew themselves from Aliyu as a result of his acceptance of arbitration issued by Mu’awiyya. They founded their own group with their leader in person of abdullahi bn wahab arrasibiy. They believed in the notion that ``no arbitration but to God´´. Being Aliyu had accepted the arbitration, they described him as unbeliever and even clashed with his people in which Aliyu was eventually killed.


1. khawarij believed that there is no judgment but to god. In this sense the acceptance of any arbitration from individual is disbelief. Thus the considered Aliyu, Abu musa al-ash’ari and like as unbeliever for their acceptance of arbitration.

2. For a Muslim to commit a great sin, according to them is also disbelief.

3. To fight unbelievers and non khawarij is religious obligation and whosoever refuse to do is unbeliever.

4. The also believed that khilafa is only legitimate to whom Muslim umma voted for, regardless of religion, ethnic or status: it is not entitled to a particular man or restricted to a specific family. Thus they opposed shi’a belief in this sense.

5. They adopt the idea of attaqiyya’ (concealment of belief).


This group had their origin from Ansar as early as after the death of prophet (S.A.W) who believed that the khalifa must be in the parson of aliyu and after him, then his family, rather than abubakar or else. The shi’ites only becomes apparent after the reign of Mu’awiyya and the ascension of his son, yazid to power. Shi’as asserted that before the prophet death she has absolutely identified his successor, and this successor must be aliyu who is ma’ asum as the prophet; and his children were entitled to khalifa after him. In general, shi’ates are the typical supporters of ahlil-bayt.


1. They belief in their own tauheed-there is only one god and that siffa and speech of Allah (Qur’an) were not part of personal of allah.

2. According to shi’a khalifa is compulsory and that the imam must be mu’asum and must come from prophet’s family. By this the shi’a considered the all four rightly guided khalifs as illegitimate leaders.

3. They believe in mahdi al-muntazar (awaiting messiah).

4. They also adopt the idea of ‘attaqiyya’ as khawarij.

5. They believe in six (6) fundamental pillars of Islam as they included jihad.

6. They adopt the system of mut’ah (temporary marriage).


This sect was founded by wasil bn Atta in a conflict with his master, hassanul-basari over the position of who commit a grievous sin in islam. Wasil believed that such a parson is neither believer nor unbeliever. Thus, they brought about the notion ‘Al-manzila bainal-manzilatian’ (intermediary status). As a result, Wasil was expelled by his master. Mu’utazilite developed further and expended the application of human reasoning and gave it prominence over the revelation (Qur’an). They argued that the revelation must follow the way of reason. In this regard, according to them, while human reason is independent, revelation is subordinate to reason. It is with the development of mu’utazilite that the philosophy found its ground in Islamic world as we shall see later.


1. Mu’utazilate believed that human reason is the only salvation in life and gave it prominence over the revelation.

2. They believe in intermediary position of those commit a grievous sin.

3. they have their own particular set of view about tauheed.


In an attempt to define the view of ahlus-sunna, another sect was founded by abul-hassanul-ash’ari who stood in opposition against the previous sects. Unlike mu’utazilite, Ash’ariyya argued that human reasoning is limited under circumstances; and it must work in conformity to revelation; revelation must be superior to human reason. They also believe that speech of Allah (Qur’an), and his attribute (siffat) were the personal of him and not created as mu’utazilite declared. By that time onwards, Ash’ariyya have been the dominant sect in the sphere of tauheed and Ilm-al-kalam.


1. Revelation is superior to human reason.

2. Speech of Allah and his attribute were his personal.

3. Allah’s knowledge extends from general law of the universe to individual as well.


Definition: It is absolute that philosophy has no any definite meaning as it concept has been changing from time to time, however, the definition provided by Plato and Ar-razi seen to be the most common in use. According to Ar-razi for instance, he defined philosophy as the ´`established of right and truth``. This definition is the same for Plato and Al-kindi. However, Al-kindi emphasized that the noblest philosophy is to first, know the cause of the truth (Allah), then the truth itself. He asserted that both revelation and true reason follow different path but reach to the same conclusion. The ancient Greek philosophy is began with Socrates who stated that the existence of God can be known only by studying one self spiritual nature not to look at the nature of the universe. Plato on the other hand, argued that to study the nature of yourself and the universe you can established the existence god. Aristotle was considered as the great Greek philosopher who expanded philosophy to the study of all aspect of life and contributed a lot to it development. i.e philosophy began with Socrates; and it was revived by Plato; and it become more revived and more prevalent with the work of Aristotle. As we have stated earlier, with the development of Mu’utazilite thought, philosophy found its way to Islamic world through the concept of Ilm-al-kalam (rational theology).

In essence, mu’utazilite has three main principle dogmas: • God is an absolute unity and no attribute can be ascribed to him; • Man is a free agent; • All knowledge necessary for salvation of man emanates from his reason; humans could acquire knowledge before, as well as, after revelation, by the sole light of reason. In an attempt to defend their principles against the orthodox Islam of their days (Ahlus-sunna), mu’utazilite looks for support in philosophy and pursued a rational theology called Ilm-al-kalam. As a result, Muslim inherited Greek philosophy in trying to reconcile religion and reason. The translation of Greek philosophy was finally achieved during Al-mamun era (813-833C.E), in the great learning center ``House of Wisdom`` founded by Al-mamun in Baghdad. This period of translation is known as ``transmission of knowledge`` the chief translator in this was Hunain bn Ishaq. With the vast translation of greek, Persian and Indian works, philosophy was introduced to Muslim world. Thus, we now have ‘(Islamic philosophy’

Islamic philosophy can be understood at that trend of Muslim thought which continues the type of Greek philosophy created by Socrates, and then Plato, followed Aristotle. It was however, improved and greatly enhanced and continued in Islamic world by Muslim thinkers. Lecture courses of Aristotle became the major course of study by Muslim philosophers. The great Muslim philosophers of the time include: Al-farabi (865-925c.e), al-kindi (800-883c.e), idn-rushd (1128-1198c.e), Ar-razi (865-925c.e), Ibn-sina (980-1037c.e), Al-ghazzali (1058-1128c.e), and among others. The three thinkers: Al-farabi, Ibn-sina and Al-kindi studied the works of Aristotle and that of Plato and became influenced a lot by their opinions and teachings. This is why some Muslims considered them as heretic Muslim or Non-Muslim philosophers.


Aristotle attempted to demonstrate the unity of god; but from his view he maintained that matter was eternal; this means that the god was not the creator of the world. Also, his assertion that god’s knowledge extends only to the general laws of the universe, and not to individual and accidental happenings; this means that god is not perfect in his knowledge. But thanks to the work of Ar-razi who in his book ‘doubts about Galen’ destroy the Aristotle theory and his concept about the god and the universe. Al-farabi maintained that the world, soul, time and space were also eternal. In his theory about the politics and society he says `` if at a given time philosophy is not at all associated with the government, the state, after a certain interval, will inevitably perished``. He also stated that the Qur’an is nothing but a translation of philosophical truth into a symbolical language. Ibn-rushd however, maintained that the creation of his world is not only a possibility-as Ibn-sina declared-but a necessity. He also developed the idea of separation of philosophy and religion. His theory was later become influential in the development of modern secularism. Ibn-rushd is thus, regarded as the founding father of secularism in Western Europe.

Finally, Al-farabi and Ibn-rushd were the most influenced by the views of Aristotle and Plato. Theories of Plato and Aristotle are known as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism. Most of their theories are highly unorthodox and contradictory to Islamic points of view.


Al- Farabi (870-950C.E)

Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn al-farakh al-farabi was born in a small village Wasij, near farab in Turkistan in 259A.H (870C.E). He received his earlier education at his home town and later on moved to Baghdad for higher education. He mastered different languages and became highly versatile and was even regarded as expert in languages. As a scientist and philosopher, he studied extensively in many branches of knowledge. His intellectual contributions to knowledge especially in philosophy were innumerable; many of his work were in philosophy, science, logic sociology mathematics and e.t.c. It was said that, many of his books have been lost; the available ones were numbered about 117. While 43 are the books on logic, 11 on metaphysics, 7 on ethics, 7 on political science, 17 on medicine, and 11 are commentaries on Greek works. Among his famous books include: Ara-ahl-al- madinah al-fadilah, Fusus al-hikam, and Kitab al-ihsa al- ulum. Finally, due to his numerous works on philosophy, Al-farabi was regarded as the second teacher (Al-mu’allim at-thani) after Aristotle. For centuries, his works aimed at interrelating philosophy and Sufism and in the end of the time this paved the way of Ibn Sina’work.

Al-Kindi (800-873C.E)

Abu Yusuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-kindi was born in 800 at kufa and was become the contemporary caliph Al-mamun. He was the first Muslim-Arab philosopher, mathematician, physician, astronomer, and geographer; he made a remarkable contribution to all these fields of knowledge. In mathematics, he wrote 4 books on number system and laid the foundation of modern Arithmetic. In physics, he contributed to geometrical optics and his works on this field latter influenced the famous scientist, Roger Bacon. He wrote much on medicine and provided the effective system of dosage (drugs usage) of his time. Among his famous books that were translated into Latin in latter times include: Ikhtiyarat al-Ayyam, Ilahyat e- Aristu, ad-duniya Murakkhaba and e.t.c. Al-kindi died in the year 873C.E, during the reign of Al-mu’uta Mu’utamid, another Abbasid Caliph.

IBN SINA (980-)

His full name was Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdullah ibn Sina. He was born at Isfahan near Bukhara (modern Russia) in the year 980C.E and studied Qur’an and various fied in sciences as early as at the age of ten. He latter, studied philosophy from various Greek works; he studied medicine while he was early young and became the distinguished greatest medical doctor of his time and his works were latter on, influenced the field of medicine. When traveled to Jurjan, Ray and finally, to Hamadan, he wrote his great book ‘Al-Qanun fi- al- Tibb’. Ibn Sina was the famous physician, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer of his time. His contribution in medicine excelled and ranked over the works the great physician Ar-razi and that of Galen. His independent, intellectual, and original contributions in medicine alone, include the recognition of contagious diseases and Tuberculosis, the description of 760 drugs for illnesses; and he was also the first to describe meningitis and made remarkable contributions to Anatomy, Gynecology and child health. His work in philosophy was ‘Kitab al-shifah. His contribution in physics were the study of energy, light, heat, mechanics and vacuum. He also made investigation on specific gravity and used an air thermometer. Finally, Ibn Sina died while in Hamadan in the year 1037C.E.


His full name was Abu hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-tusi Al-ghazzali and was born at Khorasan (modern Iran) in the year 1058C.E He received his education and study from Nishapur and Baghdad where he attained the peak of standard scholarship in religion and philosophy. He was latter, appointed as professor at Nizhamiya University of Baghdad. A few years latter however, he resigned from academic pursuits and ignored worldly affairs and became renowned Sufi (mystics). This is of course, his period of mystical transformation. Ghazzali’s remarkable contributions were in philosophy, theology, and Sufism. In philosophy, he first, sought to rectify the problematic trends in theology and tried to affiliate the possible phases of philosophy to religion. His famous book in this field of philosophy was ‘Tahafut al- falasafah (the destruction of the philosophers)’, Ihya al-Ulum al- Islamiyya’ (the Revival of the Religious Science)’,. With his clarified thought and influential force of argument, Al-ghazzali was able to make synthesis between religion and reason. Finally, Al-ghazzali also wrote on Astronomy and some of his books were translated into European languages in the middle ages. He died in the year 1128C.E at Baghdad.

IBN RUSHD (1128-1198C.E)

Abul-waleed Muhammad bn Ahmad bn Muhammad popularly known as Ibn Rushd in Cordova (modern Spain) in the year 1128C.E; both his father and grandfather had been judges. He mastered jurisprudence (Fiqh) from his grandfather, a renowned well-versed scholar in Malikiya school. He also studied philosophy from Ibn bajjah and Abu ja’afar haroon. Ibn Rushd contributed a lot in philosophy, logic medicine, music and jurisprudence. He wrote his book in medicine titled ‘Kitad al- Kulliyat fi- al-tibb’ where he provided much information on diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease. This book was letter, translated into Latin as ‘Colliget’. Some of his books also include: ‘Tahafut al- tahafut’, ‘Kitab fi Harakat al-falaq’, and ‘Bidayat al-mujtahid wa-Nihayati al-muqtasid’ Finally, Ibn rushd was said to have written about more than 20,000 pages in different books on philosophy, medicine and jurisprudence and was died in 1198C.E. ‘Allah is the All-knowing the Best’


i- M.M Sharif: A History of Muslim Philosophy. V.1-2

ii- Routledge: Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Sciences

iii- S. Hussain Nasr: History of Islamic Philosophy
This noble blog is dynamic and versatile, created purposely to enhance the development of Islamic political thought and activism in the minds of the students and the general public



It has been the tradition of Allah(SWT) to give miracles to whoever He chose to be His Messengers.This,certainly, is true of all the prophets of Allah from Prophets Nuhu(AS) down to the prophet Muhammad(SAW).However, the greatest of all such miracles are that of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) which have been still with us and much many are being discovered and seen visibly on the ground. This is as it pertains to the holy Qur’an where almost on daily basis, more and more miracles are being discovered. This is undoubtedly to confirm the authenticity of the holy Book of Islam (Qur’an). Just of recent, DR. Tariq AL-SUWAIDAN of the Islamic Gateway, http://www.ummah.net/ made a startling discovery of statistical data on the land and sea composition of the world from the holy Qur’an. Enjoy: Word/ Meaning Mentioned in the QuranThe total number of the word Al-bahar (Sea) mentioned in the whole of the holy Qur’an is 32, That of Al-bar (Land) is 13. the statistic is as follows:

Al-bahar (Sea)=32
Al_bar (Land)=13

If we add up the total nunmber of the both words of
"sea" and "land" we get 45.

Now let us do a simple calculation as thus:

32/45 X 100% = 71.11111111% (percetage of water)
13/45 X 100% = 28.88888888% (percentage of land)

Above is what we know today as the percentages of Water (Sea) and Land in the world However, with regard to statistical facts in the Qur’an, the above is just the tip of the iceberg. Almost the whole words of the Qur’an were equally numerically mentioned. Below are some more other examples.

Al-Dunya (world) 115
Al-Akhira (hereafter) 115
Al-Mala'ikah (Angels) 88
Al-Shayateen (Satan) 88
Al-Hayat (Life) 145
Al-Maut (Death) 145
Al-Rajul Man 24
Al-Mar'ha Women 24
Al-Shahr Month 12
Al-Yauom Day 365.

The Miracles of the Quran will never end. There will never be a time where mankind can fully take in the knowledge that is in this Glorious book. It is a miracle to all mankind, the word of God. There is no value that one can set to the words of the Creator. It is a treasure of which guides those that want to succeed in this life and the hereafter. PLEASE PASS THIS ON!!!

Edited by:
Hamisu Salihu (hamsal22@yahoo.com)
Salim .I. Hassan (salimanology@yahoo.com)

Islamic Thouhgt and Philosophy

This noble blog is dynamic and versatile, created purposely to enhance the development of Islamic political thought and activism in the minds of the students and the general public

Islamic Thought And Philosophy

Issues on religious thought and philosophy have been perceived from different perspectives by different religious scholars. The attempt to synthesize between Islam and philosophy has been a difficult task as different scholars from both sides (religion and philosophy) argued for their views. The crux of the matter is that philosophers claimed that one must follow the truth from any source and wherever it leads. Contrariwise, religious scholars provided the set of their principles which they hold to be unchallengeable, unalterable and unquestionable facts. Therefore, in the view of the above contradiction one cannot simultaneously be a philosopher and a true believer.
However, in recent times, the belief of synthesis between religion and philosophy is typically held by most Muslim scholars. So many extrinsic questions required Muslim scholars to incorporate philosophy into their intellectual learning and thinking. Questions like:
 Does God exist? ;
 What is the nature of God? ;
 What is the view of religion towards factual sciences? ;
 Is human being a free agent? ;

To mention little are some of the examples that forced us to philosophy. At this juncture, I would like confess that if not of philosophy that we have adopted the western secularists and atheists would have destroyed our concept of Allah (S.W.T). Moreover, the Qur’an itself contains so many philosophical texts that require us to intellectual analysis and rational thinking which are the main field of philosophy. To make the subject clearer, we may say that we appeal to philosophical arguments in order to prove that our religious set of principles are absolutely true when an unbeliever requires no Qur’anic citation or otherwise. Now we became convinced that application of philosophy in Islam is usually possible.

Islamic And Muslim Thought

Islamic thought can be defined as those set of intellectual products of Muslim scholars for the sake of Islam in an attempt to response to the needs of their time. In other word, Islamic thought are those set of harmonious understanding about the context of Qur’an and Sunnah. Muslim thought on the other hand, are those set of textual explanations of the Muslim scholars on the context of Qur’an and Sunnah, and such explanations were often diverse, alterable and vary from one group of scholars to another. Therefore, the main difference between Islamic and Muslim thought is in the harmony and generality of Islamic thought. In a nut shell, we can say Islamic thought is general and permanent in nature whereas Muslim thought is diverse and temporary in nature.
The early Muslim thought is diametrically based on two dimensions: first is Ilm-Alkalam (Tauheed), which manly deal with theological questions; and the second one is Falsafah (Philosophy) which Muslims inherited from Greek philosophy aiming at reconciling Religion and Reasoning. When the question arose on the issue of ‘Qadar’ Qadariyya emerged and affirmed ‘human free will’. Contrariwise, the Jabarites maintained the belief of Fatalism (predestination). Additionally, in the 2nd century of A.H; Mu’utazilites emerged and maintained their view in:

 Free agency of man;
 No attributes can be ascribed to Allah;
 Knowledge for man’s salvation emanates from his Reason; And that
 Human Reasoning is superior over revelation.

It is therefore, each sect appeal to philosophy in attempt to defend their principles. The specialized areas of Muslim thought are: Tawheed, Fiqh, Sufism, and Philosophy.

The Concept of Islam

Islam is not only a religion that prescribes certain rituals (Ibadaat) for its believers but also is a complete way of human code of conduct and his general activities. Conceptually, Islam has its own philosophy about the world and the creation of man. It fixes the place of man in the world and his relation with Allah (S.W.T). The religion of Islam views mankind equal and the same and that every human is born in nobility. Islam also defines man as passive and weak in his thinking and therefore, he need to be guided for his life success. Thus, Allah (S.W.T) sent his prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) with the guidance of Qur’an. The religion of Islam is unique in its nature. Uniqueness in the sense that it is not named after a person as in case of Christianity, (it was named after prophet Isah/jesus), Buddhism (named after goutama Buddha), and also, it was named after a tribe like Judaism (named after Juda), Hiduism (named after Hindus). Islam is absolutely revealed religion by Allah, the most high, with truth and perfection and it was named so by Him the most high.

The Concept of Islamic Though About the World And Man
Of course, Islam has a perfect and unique view about the universe and man. The universe according to Islam is a creation of Allah (S.W.T) and all that contained therein; and such creation is beyond any mistake, discrepancy, and defect. Allah (S.A.W) says: ´´and verily we have created the universe and the earth, and all that therein between them within six days…´´ (K:38). And Allah say in reference to the perfection of his creation: ´´ You never behold any discrepancy in Allah’s creation…(mulk:3), All that in the universe and earth; the moon, the stars, waters and all subsistence of life were belong to Allah (S.A.W) and he is in charge of their regulation. Allah says: ´´ And we provided therein (on earth) means of subsistence for you: and which you are not afford to provide (for yourselves)`` (hajr:20). And in other verse: ´´And there is not a thing but its (source) of treasure is with us: and we only send down thereof in due and ascertainable measures`` (hajr:21)
And man also according to Islamic perspective is a subservient (servant) of Allah created for the purpose of worship. (see Az-zhariya:56). And that man is combination of physique ( jism/body) and spirit (Ruh/soul). The component body of man is to make him integrated to the physical world, able to thrive and worship Allah in happiness. And the component of spirit is to make man affiliated to his lord, Allah (S.W.T). According to Islamic view also, man must struggle for his success in both this world and hereafter with equal endeavour and hard work. Allah says: ´´you should seek for what Allah gave you; and should not forsake your success in this world…´´ (kasas: 77). Prophet (S.A.W) says in his hadith: ´´Do struggle for your world (life) as if you will live forever; and do struggle for your hereafter as if you are going to die tomorrow´´. Human being must be different, while some are true believers others are unbelievers. Every man has the freedom to do right or wrong for himself, but Allah has prescribed the right deeds and enjoins man to observe them; and has prescribed the wrong deeds and enjoins man to abstain from them. Every ma would be held accountable for his deeds: good for good and bad for bad. While good doers will be rewarded with paradise bad doers will be put in a hellfire.
Islamic thought however, is an alternative to western thought about the world and man. Because Islam condemns the concept of free agency of man of the earth; it condemns the concept of man being the good of him. The Islamic also condemned and destroyed the Aristotle theory of the eternity of matters (AL-kaun); because the concept depicted that allah is not the creator of the world. According to Islamic view only allah is eternal (AL-baaq), and that all matters were created and temporal (muhdasaat). Allah says: ´´everything on the earth must vanish and that the supreme of your lord is eternal´´ (Ar-rahman 26-27). This is in short are the major Islamic concept about the creation of man and the world in general, which is true, perfect, authentic, being it divine revealed information from Allah (S.W.T).


Prophet (S.A.W) had lived his life as a stock case of religious information, law, and final criterion of the truth. This means that there was no a contradiction, conflict or argument among the muslim throughout the prophet life.the primary source of shari’ah is qura’an and hadith. Religious and worldly solutions and answers to problem were obtained from the prophet (S.A.W) without any difficulties or differences in opinion.
But after the prophet death, as the companions began to penetrate to near and distant areas, people of different religion, thought, civilization and culture embraced Islam. As a result some various thought and opinion emerged within the fold of Islam particularly on the issues that require analytical concept. Thus, the secondary source of Shari’ah introduced namely: Ijtihad and Ijma’i. and this marked the first phase of the emergence of Muslim thought. The first problematic matter among the Muslim after the prophet (S.A.W) is about the political issue of khilafah which was not clearly specified in the Qur’an or otherwise in the Sunna. Furthermore, as a result of change in the situational affairs from time to time and the rise of certain questions in aspect of Ibadaat and legalistic matters, the science of jurisprudence Fiqh) was thus introduced. Emergence of theological issues also played an important role in the emergence of Muslim thought as we have noticed so far.

Political Thought Of Islam
Islam is a unique religion that constituted the total way of life besides its emphasis on religious rituals (Ibadaat). It also specified the code of conduct of human social life in which features of worship should be reflected. Prophet (S.A.W) is the final model of life whose characters and behaviours must be imitated and emulated in whatsoever circumstances: the fact that he had lived as a religious as well as a political leader made it inseparable between state and Shari’ah. That is to say the verities of God (Islamic laws) must be applied in all human social life: politics, economy, official duties and e.t.c.
Islamic political system is therefore, basically concerned with the application of Islamic laws (Shari’ah) in the state or an organization which will govern all the social life of the people; being it religious, economic or polital. In other word, we can say the Islamic laws must govern the social world of man; being it community or state in general. We can perceive that in Islamic concept the issue of secularism does not even arise. So, Islamic political system based on the following three principles:
i- Tauheed (oneness of Allah);
ii- Risalah (prophethood); and
iii- Khilafah (chaliphateship)

i- Tauheed:- This states that Allah alone worthy of worship and alone in his kingdom (mulk) and unique in his attribute and therefore no partner in whatever sense could be ascribed to Him the most high. All things in this universe none is acquired by us in our effort but they are the bounties of Allah (S.W.T) and that all power and authority is belong to Him. This in clear terms indicates the absolute sovereignty of Allah (S.W.T) in his kingdom. In view of this we negate the political sovereignty of human being, individually or collectively. No one can claim sovereignty as we all live interdependently and the sovereign one must be independent who requires no support no assistance and no place to live. Indeed, this is Allah the most high and his laws must be implemented.
ii- Risalat (Prophethood)-: this is the medium through which we receive the laws of GOD. And this laws could be drived from the tow cources:
a-: Qura’n: the book in which GOD. Has expounded his laws.
b-: Hadith: the authoritative interpretation and explanation of the book of GOD by the prophet (S.A.W).
the broad principles on which the system of human life should be based on have been stated in the book of allah. And the prophet (S.A.W) in accordance with the intention of the divine revelation set up for us a model of the system of life by principally implementing the laws of GOD and providing necessary details where required. The combination of this tow element, according to Islamic terminology, is called SHARI’AH (Islamic constitution) which is independent and superior over any manmade constitution. In general, there is a specific purpose for man’s existence on the earth; this is to worship and observe the laws of GOD.
(3) Khilafah (Vicegeracy) -: the special role connecting man to this creator is subservience and worship. Thus the meaning of worship must be very wide as it extends beyond mere rituals (prayer, fasting, zakkat e.t.c.) into all social activities of man. Allah does not only call upon us to perform primary rituals but also his injunctions must regulate all the aspect of life through a vicegeracy (khilafat). Human is nothing but a vicegerent of Allah on the earth and his primary duty is to worship, implement and observe the laws of God: Allah says in the Qur’an: ´´I will create a vicegerent on earth´´ (Bakara: 30).
Therefore, this viceroy on the earth constitutes the wide range of man’s activities and in fact it requires the implementation of Allah’s laws and order which is in accordance with the divine book and Sunnah. Thus, it became clear that the meaning of worship is much more comprehensive than mere rituals. The role of viceroy is definitely an integral part of the meaning of worship.

Features of Islamic Political System
A state is said to be Islamic when its political system is based on three basic principles of taw heed, Risalah, and khilafah. The Qur’an clearly states in not more than one place that the aim and purpose of Islamic state is to enforce the qualities of purity, goodness, virtue, success, and prosperity which Allah wants to flourish in the life people. And that all kinds of exploitation, injustice, and disorder which are ruinous for the world and detrimental to the life of his creatures, must be suppressed and prevented. Thus the following are the main features of Islamic state:
i-the system of Islamic state must be based on the principle of tauheed, Risalah, and khilafah.
ii- in Islamic state all individuals are equal in the sight of Allah, therefore must be treated equally.
iii- the right of citizenship is based on individual Islamization (being a Muslim) irrespective of his place of birth, race, colour, or class.
iv- a non-Muslim also has a right in Muslim state, such class were known as Dhimme (the covenant). This system had existed in the life of prophet (S.A.W) at Medina.
The Qur’anic verse that specifies the real Islamic democracy is the saying of Allah: “indeed Allah commands justice doing of good, and liberality to kin, and forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: he instructs you that you may receive admonition. (Hajar: 90).
This verse clearly indicates the real democracy in Islam. According to one of the theme of the verse is that all acts of justice, generosity, consideration to poor, impartiality before the law e.t.c must e enforced in every Islam state. And that all acts of oppression, exploitation, injustice, and fraud must be suppressed and exterminated from the earth.

The Supremacy Of Islamic Constitution
The Quranic verse (s) which clarifies the supremacy of Islamic constitution and total submission to Allah’s law is the saying of Allah: “We have sent a scripture to you in truth confirmation that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge among them by what Allah has revealed, and follow not their vain desires: to each among you we have prescribed a law (constitution) and an open way of life…” (mai’dah: 48).
And also, the single Quranic verse that supports and emphasizes the superiority and effectiveness of Islamic way of life, and condemns any other man-made constitution contrast to that of Allah (S.A.W.) is His saying: “Do they then seek after a judgment of ignorance? Who is the best judger than Allah (S.W.T) for the people of faith? (ma’idah: 50).
This single verse indicates that Allah is the best law-maker and that his commandment must be implemented. Any other laws that of His are ruinous and detrimental to the people. For Allah knows best for His people

Islamic Economic System
Islamic is an entire way of life, and Allah’s guidance extends into all areas of our life. Islam has given detailed regulations for our economics life, which is balanced and fair. Muslims are to recognize that wealth, earnings, and material goods are the property of Allah and we are merely his trustees. Allah says: “So you should feed from that (Wealth) we entrusted to you….” (Hashr:7). The principle of Islamic economy aims at establishing a just and fair society wherein everyone will live responsibly and honestly.

Concept And Definition Of Economic System Of Islam
Islamic economic system can be defined as the application of Islamic law to economic activity either where Islamic rule is force and Islamic system may created; or where it is not Muslim seek to integrate Islamic tenets into a non-Islamic economic system. The payment of zakaat, sadaqah, and the system of jizyah, khums, baitul-mal, are among the traditional approach of Islamic economy. The theory of Islamic economy based on uplifting the deprived masses, a major role for the state in matters such as circulation and equitable distribution of wealth among the people. Islamic approach to economy will generally describe the system as being neither socialistic nor capitalistic, but a third way with none of the drawbacks of other system. Islamic economy forbids usury (ribah), Muslim are mot be deal interest. Allah says: “Those who devour usury will not stand….Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury…” (Bakara:275). Moreover it is unlawful to hoard food and other basic necessities. A Muslim should be responsible in spending money, extravagance is strongly discouraged. Muslims are encouraged to give constantly in charity. In short, Islamic economy is the only salvation of world problem pf poverty. Michael Bonne confessed that by saying “economy of poverty has prevailed in Islam…. Under this system God’s guidance made sure the flow of money and goods was “purified” by being channeled from those who had much of it to those who had little by encouraging charity zakat and discouraging interest on loans (usury/riba).

The Fundamental Principle Of Islamic Economy
(1) All the wealth belongs to Allah (S.W.T). Allah says: ‘And you should give to them out of Allah’s wealth which bestowed upon you. (Nur:33).
(2) The community is the trustee of wealth. Allah says: “And you should feed from the wealth of Allah entrusted to you...” (Hadid:7).
(3) Hoarding of wealth is prohibited. Allah says; “All those who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the cause of Allah, so (you prophet) notify them of a painful doom….here is what you hoarded for yourselves.” (Taubah:34-35).
(4) Circulation of wealth is a duty. Allah says; “What Allah has turned over to His messenger from those communities belong to Allah and His messenger (i.e the central Authority)- and to families, orphans, those who have no means of earning their livelihood…Nowise will not be in such manner of going round among rich of you. (Hashr: 7).
Circulation of wealth in Islamic economy is that wealth or benefits must not concentrate among few rich of the society. And that it is unlawful to hoard wealth while needy people are present. Allah says; “But nay! Behold, it is a raging fire, eager to roast. It calls him who turned and fled, and hoarded wealth and withheld it” (Lail: 15-18).And also, in other verse “woe unto very slander, fault-finder! Whose effort revolves around gathering wealth and counting it (as safe guard)”. (Hamazah:1-2).

Islam Condemns Capitalism
Islam is an alternative to capitalism therefore condemned and destroyed it. Because the theory is based on the concept that economics is that which examines man’s need; which are unlimited and how to satisfy these unlimited needs. The system depends upon the separation of the creator from life’s affair. The concept of freedom plays major role in the capitalistic ideology.
The Islamic economic system however, is derived from the only source that is capable of satisfying the needs of everyone. The source of this rule is our creator. It is forbidden to for a man to satisfy his unlimited needs. Islam also destroys the theory of globalization, Marxism, socialism and communism.

Some Modern Muslim Scholars Of Economy And Their Works
1. Mahmud Taleqani- “Islam And Property” (1951).
2. Mahmud Baqir Al-sadr- “Our economics” (1961).
3. Abul-hassan bani sadr- “The economy of divine harmony” (1978).
4. Habibullah peyman- “Some interpretations of property, right, capital and labour from Islamic perspectives” (1978).
Some List of Muslim Philosophers
(2) Ibn Sina (980-1037C.E) - a Persian and Muslim philosopher and scientist.
(3) Ibn Rushd (1128-1198C.E) - the great philosopher of his time.
(4) Arab AL-kindi (800-873C.E) - the first Arab-muslim philosopher.
(5) AL-farabi (870-950C.E) – the philosopher, scientist and expert in languages.
(6) ImamAL-ghazzali (1058-1128C.E) – the extra ordinary philosopher, jurist and mystics.
Others include Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Saba’in, Kutbud din Razi, Fakr- din razi, and the father of Sociology, Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406).


(1) Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877- 1938).
(2) Mirza Mahdi Ha’iri.
(3) Sayyed Hussain Nasr.
(4) Sayyed Muhammad Naquib Al- Attas.
(5) Sayyed Abul-Hassan Rafi’i Qazwini.
(6) Abul ala Al-maudidi e.t.c

‘Allah is the All-knowing’


* M.M Sharif: A History of MuslimPhilosophy V.II



The confused man can no longer be at ease.